German nouns and their genders
This lesson contains topics:
- Three genders of German nouns
- How to use a German dictionary for nouns?
- Elements of the sentence structure in German
This lesson introduces the genders of German nouns. This lesson also has a small vocabulary exercise. Nouns used to explain the three genders are not to memorize,they are just explanations, but the words used in vocabulary building exercise should be memorized. Now we have good command over German pronunciation, we can start building vocabulary.
Second part of the lesson explains elements of a sentence structure in German e.g. object, verb, subject and complement.
1. Three genders of German nouns
There are two important points to know about the noun in German language:
- Every noun starts with a capital letter.
- Every noun has a gender.
A noun in German can be masculine, feminine or neuter. Similarly, German articles also have three forms. We will discuss articles in detail later. Here, we are discussing them to understand gender characteristic of noun.
The definite article “the” in German has three genders i.e.
- der for masculine nouns, for example, der Mann (the man),
- die for feminine nouns, for example, die Frau (the woman),
- das for neuter nous, for example, das Messer (the knife).
Human beings and animals have natural genders so their genders are not hard to learn, but there are always exceptions like in any other language. A window for exceptions should always be open while learning any language. For example, das Mädchen (the girl).
Nonliving things don’t have natural genders so while learning German language it is always recommended to memorize nouns along with their genders. For example, die Tür (the door), die Wand (the wall), der Stuhl (the chair), das Fenster (the window), das Licht (the light).
There are some hints to find out the gender of a noun, but these are just hints, not rules. Please note that there is no need to memorize the following hints. They are just for quick reference. Also, it not advisable to memorize words, so you can just skim through following 3 hints and continue reading next topic, "How to use a German dictionary for nouns?".
- If a noun ends in -er, -ig, -ling, -mus, -or, mostly it is masculine. For example,
- Words with endings -in, -ion, -ung, -heit, -keit, -schaft, -ei, -ik, -tät, -enz, -ie are normally faminine. For example,
- Nouns that end in -ment and -nis are normally neuter. For example,
der Jäger (the hunter), der Körper (the body), der Bäcker (the baker),
der Honig (the honey), der König (the king),
der Frühling (the spring), der Flüchtling (the refugee), der Zwilling (the twin),
der Algorithmus (the algorithm), der Tourismus (the tourism), der Materialismus (the materialism),
der Doktor (the doctor), der Motor (the motor), der Professor (the professor).
die Professorin (female professor), die Doktorin (the ladydoctor),
die Station (the station), die Information (the information),
die Änderung (the change), die Forschung (the research),
die Gesundheit (the health), die Schönheit (the beauty),
die Geschwindigkeit (the speed), die Süßigkeit (the sweetness),
die Wirtschaft (the economy), die Botschaft (the embassy, the message) , die deutsche Botschaft in London (The German Embassy in London),
die Bäckerei (the bakery), die Datei (the data),
die Klinik (the clinic), die Physik (the physics),
die Universität (the university), die Spezialität (the speciality),
die Differenz (the difference), die Intelligenz (the intelligence),
die Allergie (the allergy), die Biologie (the biology), die Chemie (the chemistry).
das Medikament (the medicine), das Dokument (the document), das Instrument (the instrument),
das Zeugnis (the certificate, report), das Geheimnis (the secret).
For more clarity please watch the following video.
1.1 How to use a German dictionary for nouns?
In dictionaries, nouns are written in the singular form and are capitalized.
Mostly the article is not written with a noun. To recognize the gender of a noun a hint is given in bracket. For example, Wand (e) in German to German dictionary or it can be Wand (f) in German to English dictionary. If it’s written as Wand (e) the letter e in brackets represents the feminine article “die”. In Wand (f), the (f) represents feminine. Similarly, masculine nouns are written as for example: Honig (r). Letter "r" in brackets represents the masculine article “der”, it can also be Honig (m). In the case of neuter, (s) or (n) is written after the noun.
1.2 Vocabulary building exercise
Der König ist sehr reich. (The king is very rich.)
Und der Bäcker ist arm. (And the baker is poor.)
Vielleicht. (May be.)
Der Honig ist immer braun. (The honey is always brown.)
Nein, nicht immer. (No, not always.)
Okay, aber die Milch ist immer weiß. (Ok, but the milk is always white.)
Der Tag ist weiß und die Nacht ist schwarz. (The day is white and the night is black.)
Ja, stimmt. (Yes, correct.)
1.3 Words used in vocabulary building exercise
der König (King)
vielleicht (may be)
der Honig (honey)
der Bäcker (baker)
die Milch (milk)
der Tag (day)
die Nacht (night)
stimmt (correct). It is a verb. we will discuss verbs in coming lessons.
2. Elements of the sentence structure in German
Like English, the main parts of a sentence in German are:
A subject is the part of the sentence which performs some action (verb), or about which some information is given. The Subject in a sentence can be
- a noun (a proper noun e.g. Mr. Thomas or a noun with an article e.g. a table)
- a pronoun (I, you, we, he, she, etc).
The verb is a central element in a sentence. Some verbs take a direct object. The object is an element in the sentence on which the action is performed or about which the information is given, e.g.
Some verbs don't need an object, but then they need something else to complete the sense of the sentence. Complement is the part of the sentence that completes its sense where a verb doesn't require an object. Complement can be a single word or a set of different words. (adjectives, particles, adverbs, etc.)
In the above examples, we have used the verb "ist" (is), that doesn't require a direct object. Hence, we need a complement to complete the sentence.
|Der König||ist||sehr reich.|
|The king||is||very rich|
|Der Honig||ist||immer braun.|
|The honey||is||always brown.|
|Die Milch||ist||immer weiß.|
|The milk||is||always white.|
Guten Morgen (Good morning)
Guten Morgen (Good morning)
Sie sind heute zu spät. (You are too late today.)
Es ist erst acht Uhr. (It's only eight o'clock.)
Nein, es ist schon neun Uhr. (No, it is already nine o'clock.)
Entschuldigung, mein auto ist kaputt heute. (Sorry, my car is broken today.)
Und auch die Uhr. Das ist aber nicht gut. (And also the clock. That is not good.)
zu (too - in the sence of much)
acht (eight), neun (nine)
acht Uhr (eight o'clock),
die Uhr (the watch, the clock)
aber (but - In this sentence "aber" is used as a particle. Particles have no meanings. They are used to emphasise.)